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posted Aug 23, 2010, 11:10 PM by Manguirish Naik Raiker   [ updated Aug 23, 2010, 11:10 PM ]

The stethoscope (from Greek στηθοσκόπιο, of στήθος, stéthos - chest and σκοπή, skopé - examination) is an acoustic medical device for auscultation, or listening to the internal sounds of an Human/Animal body. It is often used to listen to lung and heart sounds. It is also used to listen to intestines  and blood flow in arteries and veins. In combination with a sphygmomanometer, it is commonly used for measurements of blood pressure. A stethoscope that intensifies auscultatory sounds is called phonendoscope.


History

 
Early stethoscopes.

The stethoscope was invented in France in 1816 by René Laennec at the Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital - Paris. It consisted of a wooden tube and was monaural. His device was similar to the common ear trumpet, a historical form of hearing aid; indeed, his invention was almost indistinguishable in structure and function from the trumpet, which was commonly called a "microphone".

In 1851, Arthur Leared invented a binaural stethoscope, and in 1852 George Cammann perfected the design of the instrument for commercial production, which has become the standard ever since.

Rappaport and Sprague designed a new stethoscope in the 1940s, which became the standard by which other stethoscopes are measured, consisting of two sides, one of which is used for the respiratory system, the other is used for the cardiovascular system

After abandoning by philips, which was bought from HP, who bought design of Rappaport and Sprague design and sold, some cardiologists still considered the original Rappaport-Sprague to be the finest acoustic stethoscope.

Several other minor refinements were made to stethoscopes, until in the early 1960s Dr. David Littmann, a Harvard Medical School professor, created a new stethoscope that was lighter than previous models and had improved acoustics

Stethoscopes are often considered as a symbol of the doctor's profession, as doctors are often seen or depicted with a stethoscope hanging around their neck.

Types

Acoustic Regular stethoscope.

Electronic With noise reduction and recording facility.

Fetal stethoscope or Fetoscope is an acoustic stethoscope shaped like a listening trumpet. It is placed against the abdomen of a pregnant woman to listen to the heart sounds of the fetus. The fetal stethoscope is also known as a Pinard's stethoscope or a pinard, after French obstetrician Adolphe Pinard (1844–1934).
  
Drogaria RaicarStocks various Stethoscope items for home, Students, Doctors and specialist.
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